Bibliography: A list of writings used or considered by an author in preparing a particular work.
A bibliography acknowledges the resources used and helps to avoid plagiarism.

The resources are listed in alphabetical order by author's surname (ie: their last name).

Resources come in various formats and each has a specific way that the bibliographic information is presented.

If you want an easy way to write up your bibliography then go to BibMe. It is free to register.
  1. Choose the Manual Entry Mode .
  2. Enter the fields with the relevant information.
  3. Choose APA format (on right-hand side)
  4. Click Add to my Bibliography

Each record will be added in alphabetical order to a list on the right-hand side. You can then copy and paste to your assignment.

Bibliographic information that is required for:

  • Author - surname first followed by Christian name or initials with a comma after the surname and a full stop at the end of the author's name. e.g.: Stack, J. or Stack, John.
  • Date of publication in brackets followed by a full stop. e.g: Stack, J. (2009).
  • Title of the work (either in italics or underlined) followed by a full stop. e.g.: Ship of Rome. or Ship of Rome.
  • Place of publication followed by a colon, then publisher's name followed by a full stop. e.g.: London, England: HarperCollins Publishers.

Completed record will look like this: Stack, J. (2009). Ship of Rome. London, England: HarperCollinsPublishers.
The words in the title of the work begin with a capital letter, and the rest in lower case unless the title has proper nouns. E.g.: A rose for the ANZAC boys.

If the book is edited, place (Ed.) after the author's name. e.g.: Manhire, Bill. (Ed.)

If the book has more than one author:
E.g.: McLean, C., & Phillips, J. (1990). The sorrow and the pride: New Zealand war memorials. New Zealand: Government Printing Office.

Newspaper Article:
Author. Date of publication. Title of article. Newspaper publication (italicized), page numbers.
E.g.: Humphries, Kirsty. (2009, June 9). Drums contained toxins. Taranaki Daily News, p.1.

Magazine Article:
Author. Year. Title of article. Magazine publication (italicised). Volume and/or(Number), page numbers.
E.g.: Laugesen, Ruth. (2009). The buck stops here. New Zealand Listener. 218 (3603), 18-22.

If there is no volume or number then use the month of publication.
E.g.: Chisholm, Donna. (2009, June). NZs first test tube baby turns 25. North & South, 36-44.

Director. Year of film. (in brackets). Title of film (italics or underlined). Country of film company: name of film company.
E.g.: Columbus, Chris. (dir.). (1993). Mrs Doubtfire. United States: Twentieth Century Fox.


Author. (date). Title (italicized). Retrieved from http:....

Eg.: Munro, D. (2014). Big data crushes anti-vaccination movement. Retrieved from

If no author is named, the source may be written by a group or organisation; use the group in the author position.

Eg.: Ministry of Health. (2014). 2014 Immunisation schedule. Retrieved from change

Web pages sometimes display a “last updated” date; the year can be used for the year of publication.

Online newspaper:
Author. Date of publication (if known). Title of item. Publisher of the website (italised). Access date and URL.
E.g.: Hickman, Leo. (2009). ''Global warming is baloney' signs put the heat on Burger King. Guardian News and Media Limited. Accessed from World Wide Web June 12, 2009.
If there is no date for the publication then show ( - ) to indicate this is unknown. If you do not know the publisher then leave it out.

Poetry or Short Stories:
Author of poem. Date. Title of poem (in inverted commas) in Author of book. Title of the book. Publisher, place of publication.
E.g: Owen, Wilfred. (1997). "Disabled" in Barton, Geoff (Ed.). Voices of the Great War. Harlow, England: Addison Wesley Longman Limited.

Personal Interview:
Name of person interviewed. Personal interview. Date of interview.
Eg.: Archer, Phil. Personal interview. June 22, 2009.

For more information about APA referencing for other resources (such as You Tube, television programmes) go to:
APA Referencing - Massey University
To view a video lecture about referencing click on APA referencing: The basics// on the Massey University webpage